Facial deformity surgery is a surgical treatment whose main aim is to reconstruct the face in a way which gets rid of the facial deformity or abnormality. This type of surgery is different from conventional cosmetic surgery. Facial deformity of the face, head and neck are treated using the various types of facial reconstructive methods. This is a helpful procedure to not only improve the patient’s appearance but also to help build self-esteem.
Facial deformities can be caused by genetic, birth (congenital) defects, developmental abnormalities, injury or trauma, along with infections, tumors or various medical diseases. The success of a facial reconstructive surgery is determined by the level of functioning increased and the improvement in quality of life. This surgery may also be done to simply make the facial appearance look normal.
What are the different types of Facial Deformities that are treated with Facial Reconstructive surgeries?
An otolaryngologist (head and neck surgeon) is mainly responsible for performing any facial reconstructive surgery. These are some of the types of facial reconstructive surgeries performed:
- Cleft Lip Repair: This is an effective surgical treatment for the birth (congenital) defect. This is mostly done on the child between the ages of 3-6 months. This surgical procedure involves the tip rhinoplasty which is best able to repair the asymmetrical nostrils and the lip abnormality as well.
- Cancer Reconstruction: In this surgical treatment, the surgeon will use a variation of Mohs technique to use skin flaps or skin grafts. Larger-sized cancers on the facial region need extensive repair with grafting of skin, muscles and sometimes, bones as well sourced from another part of the body.
- Cleft Palate Repair: This is an efficient surgical treatment to treat the congenital (birth) defect that causes the palate (roof of the mouth) to be under-developed. This surgery is usually done around the age of 9-12 months. Apart from repairing the palate, the surgeon will also place ear tubes in order to prevent infections in the future.
- Facial Paralysis: This is a surgical treatment to improve the functioning of the facial muscles and also to make the face appear normal and better. This surgery helps to restore symmetry to the face and help regain facial animation.
- Facial Trauma/Injury Reconstruction: This is a successful surgical treatment to restore normal functioning and appearance to the face after having suffered significant trauma or injured the facial region. Trauma to the face is mostly seen in the form of facial fractures, which mainly involves the jaw bone, cheek bones, brow, eye socket, etc. The treatment of such fractures or severe trauma and injuries requires realigning the broken/dislocated bone segments and fixing these for healing normally. Mild to severe injuries often scar and may also damage the facial nerves, the salivary ducts or the tear ducts.
- Scar Revision: This is a broad term used to describe a group of facial surgical procedures. Scar revision surgeries are mainly aimed at removing the scar completely or reducing the visibility of the scar. There are several different methods and techniques used to diminish the scar and help improve the appearance of the face. Scar revision can involve conventional surgical procedure to the more advanced laser scar revision therapy.
Facial deformity surgical treatments can help restore functions and normal appearance to the face effectively and treat the facial deformity.